Saturday, March 21, 2020

Alfred Adler Essays - Adlerian Psychology, Complex, Psychoanalysis

Alfred Adler Adler, Alfred Adler, Alfred (1870-1937), Austrian psychologist and psychiatrist, born in Vienna, and educated at Vienna University. After leaving the university he studied and was associated with Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis. In 1911 Adler left the orthodox psychoanalytic school to found a neo-Freudian school of psychoanalysis. After 1926 he was a visiting professor at Columbia University, and in 1935 he and his family moved to the United States. In his analysis of individual development, Adler stressed the sense of inferiority, rather than sexual drives, as the motivating force in human life. According to Adler, conscious or subconscious feelings of inferiority (to which he gave the name inferiority complex), combined with compensatory defense mechanisms, are the basic causes of psychopathological behavior. The function of the psychoanalyst, furthermore, is to discover and rationalize such feelings and break down the compensatory, neurotic will for power that they engender in the patient. Adler's works include The Theory and Practice of Individual Psychology (1918) and The Pattern of Life (1930). Alfred Adler studied personality around the time of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung but developed very different ideas (Cloninger, 1996). Although he changed his theory many times during his lifetime, he always believed people had control over their lives and made choices concerning themselves. He named his theory Individual Psychology because he felt each person was unique and no previous theory applied to all people. Adler's theory is comprised primarily of four aspects: striving towards superiority, the unity of personality, the development of personality, and psychological health, which includes intervention. Motivation of Actions Adler believed the main goal of all people is to move to a better way of life, although he admits the ways to achieve this goal varies among people (Cloninger, 1996). He first used the term inferiority complex as being overcome by feelings of lack of worth. In other words, the person is not achieving their goal to moving positively in life. People wish to move from feelings of inferiority to superiority. He wrote, We all wish to overcome difficulties. We all strive to reach a goal by the attainment of which we shall feel strong, superior, and complete (Ansbacher & Ansbacher, 1956). Superior and superiority, in his usage, has a slightly different meaning than what is commonly thought. It is not necessarily feelings of superiority over others but more along the lines of self-improvement, such as striving for one's personal best. He eventually switched from superiority striving to simply perfection striving. This was the final stage in the development of his theory. Alder also used the word superiority complex. This complex occurred when a person tried to overcome their inferiority complex by repressing their actual feelings. They are usually very arrogant and tend to exaggerate their achievements. Along with the idea of trying to overcome inferiority, Adler claimed that every person had an idea about what their perfect self would be like (Cloninger, 1996). He called this imagined goal the fictional finalism. Fictional finalism gives clearer direction as to what decisions to make concerning oneself. Although people may have some idea about their goal, they rarely fully comprehend it. Also, throughout one's lifetime the goal may be altered. The general direction, however, usually remains the same. Adler wrote, . . .in every mental phenomenon we discover anew the characteristic of pursuit of a goal, and all our powers, faculties, experiences, wishes and fears, defects and capacities fall into line with this characteristic (Ansbacher & Ansbacher, 1956). Adler believed that it was impossible to understand a person without understanding that person's fictional finalism. Unity of Personality The second aspect of Adler's theory was the unity of personality (Cloninger, 1996). Psychologists before him, including Freud, discussed how different parts of a person's personality are at war with each other. Adler believed the conscious and unconscious worked in union with one another towards the fictional finalism. Both had the same goal. Adler claimed that each person has a unique style of life, which not only includes the common goal but also how the goal is going to be achieved and the person's concept of one's self and the world. Styles of life can be either positive or negative. Adler hated lumping large groups of people into

Thursday, March 5, 2020

The effects of mental health stigma in the media and society

The effects of mental health stigma in the media and society Mental Health StigmaSuraya YosofAllison GreenEnglish 205The Effects of Mental Health Stigma in the Media and SocietyIf someone is diagnosed with a physical illness or viral infection, we expect them to receive treatment until it's cured or it is not harmful to him or her. If someone had cancer or Tuberculosis we don't simply tell them to "brush it off" or "you don't need help with that". Yet when it comes to mental illness, people suffering from it are expected to just brush it off and not receive treatment. Society does not accept nor understand the treatment of mental illness. The media places stigma and discrimination against people with mental illness. That people who are suffering from mental illnesses avoid getting treatment for their illness; in order to not be labeled as "crazy" or "being socially unacceptable". Although physical and mental illnesses are not the same; mental illness can also have severe consequences such as isolation, self-harm and death.Society and the media play a huge role in mental health stigma among patients with psychiatric disorder, and their refusal and avoidance of receiving mental health care.Stigma is defined as mark a disgrace towards a certain group base on a particular circumstance or quality (Oxford dictionary).There are two types of stigma surrounding mental illness; the first one is public perceived stigma. This is the public common beliefs and stereotypes towards mental illness. It is also the common public response to people who seek help for psychological problems (Bathje, Pryor, 2011, p.161). The second one is self-stigma is the views held by the individual that he or she is socially unacceptable and accepts how the public perceived mental illness.(Maier, Gentile, Vogel, and Kaplan, 2013, p. 239)I've had my own experience of the stigma surrounding mental...

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Portfolio Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

Portfolio - Essay Example The observation class had 24 learners, all from different community background; 3 support teachers and the class teacher. The children fall between 3 and 4 years, and during the start of the class, they were all sited on the floor, as the teacher took the class register. Due to their varied community backgrounds, approximately 80 percent of the learners are bilingual: they are of language and national backgrounds foreign to the U.K. The observation reports for observation 1 and 2 are included in this report as Appendix 1 and 2, respectively. Qualitative observation was the primary qualitative tools of inquiry used for this particular observation study, towards ensuring that the study gave as much information as possible, through the two observation cases. The narrative method of reporting is used in presenting the information and the inferences drawn form the two observations: narrative reporting was an effective evaluation and reporting model for this observation. The principle of à ¢â‚¬Ëœemergent literacy’ is used to describe the wider conception of learning, for the learners between the ages 0 to 5. Under this conception, emphasis is placed on informal learning strategies and learning settings, using a variety of activities and exercises, for example the activity of fighting dinosaurs, which looks very informal, but offered an effective learning experience for the children (Yarden et al., 1999). Critical evaluation and analysis of the resources and the strategies used during the exercise As explained by Maria Montessori (1870-1952), young learners, during their initial years of schooling, require a systematic and orderly way of training and education – so they can master different skill-sets, one after another. This is in line with Whitehead (2010), who advocates that learners, during early years of learning should be taught using activities like writing and reading exercises, incorporated into plays. For example, during the second activity, the teachers required the learners to write or draw names of things they were familiar with, for example dog and cat, as a way to improve their comprehension of the letters of the alphabet. The activities helped them to explore the surroundings around them, so they can create sense from their perceived experiences. The two activities for the class are developed according to the standards of the EYFS syllabus, which incorporates learning in fun to do activities, and plays or games. For example, through the activity of the fighting dinosaurs, the social and communication skills of the children were greatly fostered (DCSF, 2008). According to Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934), instructors are obligated to carefully observe, design and plan study activities in a way that will challenge the young learners’, next level of conception and learning. From the current case, it is evident that the teachers had designed the activities in a careful manner – so as to enhance and simulate the int erest of the learners in the learning incorporated into play. For example, through the first activity, where different children were supposed to act-out different roles, the creativity of the children was fostered – for example, they were supposed to make dinosaur sounds. The group that was supposed to protect the baby dinosaur was to build a wall to shield it, which greatly improves the motor skills of children within their age range. According to Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), special emphasis should be placed on ensuring that children are not taught concepts or ideas that they may not be ready to take-in. For example, in the second observation, the teacher only required the children to draw words of common things

Monday, February 3, 2020

Selzer Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Selzer - Assignment Example Through the story, the lesson learnt is that the narrator and other doctors invented this parrot fever disease and advised the public of its negative influence on people. So it seems as if this doctor was also a journalist â€Å"the parrot fever made malady out to be virulent, mysterious and exotic despite the fact that, the diseases was not baffling: it had been identified in the nineteenth century† (Warren, 611 pp). For patients, it seems, parrot fever instills fear than any other thing in the world. Some people even get more worried than the parrot itself (Warren, 608 pp). Considering the history of the doctor and the patient, the doctor’s is more important in relation to that of the patient. It is the doctor that first discovers the about the parrot disease and then raises public awareness through the New York time magazine. It is a gesture to let people know facts about the fever and consequentially, treats the infected patients. In conclusion, therefore, this story of parrot fever disease as presented, it is prudent to note the educational importance to every reader and pet rears. This paper has the message to all those who keep parrots to be aware of its disease that can prove to be deadly to both the parrot and the entire family. Therefore, it is imperative to consult a pet doctor when buying a pet for a home, for any communicable disease. Where there is a pet already, it is healthy to visit a doctor for a

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Should Xenotransplantation Be Allowed?

Should Xenotransplantation Be Allowed? Xenotransplants have a long history in modern medicine. In late 1963 and early 1964, a team from Tulane University led by Keith Reemtsma, MD, did kidney transplants from chimpanzees into six patients, and one of them survived for nine months subsequent to the transplant. By 1974, including investigational surgeries performed by Thomas Starzl, MD, of University of Pittsburgh, around 20 patients had received xenotransplants. In this essay, I will examine if xenotransplantation should be allowed. Xenotransplantation is the removal of cells, tissue or organs from one organism and then implanted into another organism (Nuffield, 1996). A xenograft is a surgical graft of tissue between different species. The most liable source of transplantable organs is currently the pig. A modern technique from molecular biology that is now used to alter a donor organ is referred as gene knockout technology. Specific genes are inactivated through this way. Hypothetically, gene knockout technique can eliminate genes for antigens or other factors that induces rejection from animal organs and tissues permanently. Scientists are trying to make the human immune system accept transplants of pig organs by genetic engineering to modify the pig. Research teams are trying to delete specific pig genes or inserting human genes to modify pig cells into a less foreign matter to the immune system by accessible laboratory techniques. The manufacture of transgenic organs is an approach to shield animal organs f rom rejection by humans without need for immunosuppression. With the aid of transgenic technology, genes that can prevent rejection are added. In transgenic modification, either all the animal cells that contain the foreign gene which is incorporated firmly into their genome expressing the protein, or only chosen cells contain these genes due to the presence of promoters that are precise for a single cell type (Levinsky, 1996). There is an increase in number of patients with organ failures but an insufficient supply of organs, creating a gap between organ supply and demand (Uncaged, 1999). Considering that this imbalance has resulted in rising waiting times and number of deaths of patients on waiting lists, xenotransplants should be allowed. (Levinsky, 1996) Other than that, researchers also have studied transplanting animal cells for therapeutic effect. Suzanne Ildstad, who is the director of Institute for Cellular Therapeutics in Louisville, Kentucky does bone-marrow transplantation research. In year 1995, she performed a baboon bone-marrow transplant into Jeff Getty, a man infected with HIV and therefore has AIDS. Bone marrow makes immune system cells. The main aim was to shield Getty from infection by replacing his collapsing immune system with a HIV-proof baboon immune system. Getty is still alive even though the baboon cells functioned for merely two weeks (Agnew, 1999). Besides that, enough animals could be reared to supply sufficient organs and tissue to surmount the current shortage of human organs and tissue for transplantation. Pigs are the considered the liable candidates because they are highly tamed, have large amount of litters, grow rapidly to maturity and their organs are the correct size. They can be bred in sterile environments, and this decreases the chances of transmission of certain pig diseases to humans. Successful xenotransplantation of genetically modified organs and tissue would eradicate the need for the careful matching of the organ or tissue with the recipient, necessary in transplants between human beings in order to lessen rejection by the immune system. This predominantly benefits people who have difficulties finding compatible organs and tissue (Nuffield, 1996). The potential benefits are obvious, but the harm that it also brings cannot be overlooked. The human immune system consists of an intricate network of defense against disease and other foreign substances. When an organ from an animal that is evolutionarily remote is introduced, the human immune system shows a violent response. In hyperacute rejection, antibodies that appear pre-primed to attack tissues of another species convene the complement cascade, a range of proteins in the blood which attacks the interior walls of the transplants blood vessels, causing organ rejection within hours or even minutes. Patients died either due to graft rejection or because of infections resulting from the use of large doses of immunosuppressive drugs (Agnew, 1999). Animal organs may come with unwanted viruses or infectious organisms. The foremost concern involves porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) because they are able to infect human cells in-vitro and cannot be eliminated from the source animals genome. In the more notable research projects, three classes of infectious type C PERVs have displayed its ability of infecting human cells. PERVs can infect both pig and human cell lines. This shows that PERVs is most likely to replicate in pig transplants and human cells in immunosuppressed xenograft recipients. Scientists believe that there is an intolerable threat to public health related with xenotransplantation because of the lack of alternatives to counter risks posed by PERVs (Uncaged, 1999). Moreover, there is a possibility of initiating a human epidemic. Zoonotic infections have the potential to expand beyond the individual and into the public. The likelihood for xenogeneic infections to be transmitted through human populations poses a public health concern. Furthermore, the risk for health care workers who interacts with the xenograft recipient is higher than for the community at large (Uncaged, 1999). Finally, the use of animals as a source of xenotransplant organs will raise an ethical storm. The main concerns of bioethicists and animal-rights advocates are whether humans have the moral right to exploit animal organs to save human lives. The debate is further strengthened when we consider the suffering, exploitation and annihilation of animals (Nuffield, 1996). In conclusion, xenotransplantation can solve the shortage of organ supply, minimise the need for careful matching of the organ or tissue with the recipient and also has therapeutic effect. On the contrary, it might be potentially harmful to patients through infection or rejection. Risks for zoonotic infections that can spread to the community are high and ethical issues such as exploitation of animals would be raised. (1000 words)

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Orensic Anthropology Field School Essay

Assignments: Detailed descriptions, expectations, and grading rubrics will be posted for each assignment and made available for students to download from blackboard. Late Assignment Policy: Late assignments will not be accepted. Students will receive a 0 for any assignment not turned in on time. Hard copies of assignments are due at the beginning of class on the due date (except for labs, which are due at the  end of the lab class). If you are ill and have a doctor’s note, you may email the assignment to me prior to the class in which it is due. Policies regarding religious holidays and accommodations for religious activities from Section 3.1 of the 2006-2007 Faculty Handbook: Absent for Religious Holidays: †¢ The general tenor of the University’s policy regarding accommodations for religious observances is that no student should suffer academic penalty because of the observance of their faith. For example, students may wish to be excused from classes or examinations for religious reasons on Holy Days or on the Jewish Sabbath (one-and a-half hours before sunset Friday to one-and-a-half hours after sunset on Saturday), or on Friday at 1:00 p.m. for Muslim community prayers. †¢ Students have a responsibility to alert members of the teaching staff in a timely fashion to upcoming religious observances and anticipated absences. Every effort should be made to avoid scheduling tests, examinations or other compulsory activities at these times. If compulsory activities are unavoidable, every reasonable opportunity should be given to these students to make up work that they miss, particularly in courses involving laboratory work. When the scheduling of tests or examinations cannot be avoided, students should be informed of the procedure to be followed to arrange to write at an alternate time. †¢ While the University’s policy makes no special provision for Holy Days of other faiths, the same general consideration is understood to apply: no students should be seriously disadvantaged because of their religious beliefs. Final Grades: Final grades will be calculated according to the weights listed in the Grading Scheme. There will be no make up assignments or extra credit assignments. The grades you earn on your assignments are the grades you will receive. The breakdown of percentages into letter grades, GPA, and grade definitions is viewable here: http://www.artsandscience.utoronto.ca/ofr/calendar/rules.htm#grading Student Participation Policy: Students are expected to do the required readings before attending lecture/lab. There will be no time to read the text before starting the lab. Each lab is based upon text and assigned materials. Lectures will NOT be posted online. It is the student’s responsibility to come to class and take notes. A handout listing tips on efficient note taking is linked in the recommended reading section, below. Students are encouraged to take advantage of workshops in note taking and other study skills provided by The Robert Gillespie Academic Skills centre. Student questions are encouraged during lecture and lab. Course Rationale: This course provides students with theoretical knowledge and practical skills related to searching for, documenting, and recovering human remains and associated exhibits from outdoor scenes. Crime scene protocols and the role of the forensic anthropologist during crime scene investigations are emphasized. This course encourages students to develop their critical thinking skills and focuses on a reflective learning approach to create an experience-based learning opportunity. Goals and Learning Objectives Goals: ââ€" ª Introduce students to the main techniques used in a forensic anthropological search, recovery, and analysis of human remains at outdoor scenes ââ€" ª Highlight the importance of collaboration and teamwork in forensic science ââ€" ª Show students how to incorporate the scientific method in crime scene analysis and reconstruction ââ€" ª Help students develop public speaking skills and professionalism ââ€" ª Emphasize the importance of ethics and safety in forensic anthropology and forensic science ââ€" ª Build critical thinking and reasoning skills through an iterative process as new variables are introduced Learning objectives By the end of the course: ââ€" ª Students will have the skills to volunteer as members of a search team  in cases of found human remains and missing persons presumed dead ââ€" ª Students will be able to verbally explain their rationale for adopting particular protocols ââ€" ª Students will gain knowledge and understanding of the proper methods of processing a crime scene Required Reading: Gardner, R. 2005 or 2012. Practical Crime Scene Processing and Investigation. CRC Press. Please see the class schedule for assigned readings for each lecture. Recommended Reading: How not to plagiarize: http://www.utoronto.ca/writing/plagsep.html) Writing tips and study skills (including note-taking, referencing, lecture listening, test writing): http://www.utm.utoronto.ca/asc/Students/tips.htm E-Culture Policy: Students should treat email as professional correspondence, using a formal tone and phrasing questions clearly. Email without ANT306 in the subject line will not be answered. Students must use their UTOR email to ensure that their messages get delivered and is not filtered out as spam. Blackboard will be used to inform students of important course-related information. It is the student’s responsibility to check the website regularly. Statement on Learning Technology: Laptops are permitted in class for word processing only. Due to the sensitive nature of the subject matter, the use of voice recorders, digital photography and video recorders is prohibited. Classroom Conduct: Disruptive behaviour during lectures (e.g. cell phones ringing, chatting,  text messaging, etc.) is a show of disrespect to the speaker, as well as an academic offence (see Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters), and as such, will not be tolerated. If someone is being disruptive, he/she will be asked to leave. During the field component of the course we will follow briefing and debriefing protocols – students are expected to be aware when the person in charge of briefing enters the room and should immediately give that individual their undivided attention. Note taking is permitted and expected. What I expect from students: Students are expected to arrive at lecture/lab prepared to work on their mock cases. In this context, prepared means having read the assigned textbook chapter; generating and bringing relevant data sheets, such as inventory forms; etc. Forensic anthropology is a field requiring attention to detail, professionalism, careful, and critical analysis. I expect students to bring these qualities to the field and the lab What students can expect from me: I will provide as complete, organized, and detailed an overview of the process of a forensic anthropological search and recovery, including crime scene protocols, as possible to give you the most realistic experience possible. I will make your health and safety a priority, outlining the potential hazards one can encounter at a crime scene, and addressing the ethical issues associated with the excavation and recovery of human remains in a medico-legal context. I will emphasize professionalism and help you achieve a professional note taking style, demeanor, and manner of public speaking. I will be available to discuss your course work and career goals during office hours or by appointment. I want you to do your best and will support you in your efforts to achieve success. Academic Integrity: From the Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters: It shall be an offence for a student knowingly: (d) to represent as one’s own any idea or expression of an idea or work of another in any academic examination or term test or in connection with any other form of academic work, i.e. to commit plagiarism. Wherever in the Code an offence is described as depending on â€Å"knowing†, the offence shall likewise be deemed to have been committed if the person ought reasonably to have known. The full policy can be found here: http://www.governingcouncil.utoronto.ca/policies/behaveac.htm Plagiarism is considered an academic offense and will be dealt with according to the Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters. Please be advised that while it is necessary and desirable to work in groups to complete the mock case, generating discussion and leading to additional learning opportunities, each student must write his/her own reports. Copying sections from someone else’s report (with or without a few word changes) is considered plagiarism. Drop Policy: Nov 5, 2012 is the final day to drop this course from academic record and GPA. By this time students will have completed 45% of their final grade. Academic Support: Robert Gillespie Academic Skills Centre: The Robert Gillespie Academic Skills Centre (Room 390, Hazel McCallion Academic Learning Centre) offers a range of workshops, seminars and individual consultations to help students develop the academic skills they need for success in their studies. For more information on the Centre’s services and programs, go to www.utm.utoronto.ca/asc or phone 905-828-3858. AccessAbility Policy: â€Å"Students with diverse needs are welcome in this course, although it is physically demanding. The UTM AccessAbility Resource Centre offers services to assess specific student needs, provide referrals, and arrange appropriate accommodations. Students with questions about disability/health accommodations are encouraged to contact their instructor and/or the  AccessAbility Resource Centre when the course begins. The AccessAbility Resource Centre staff can be contacted by phone (905-569-4699), email (access@utm.utoronto.ca) or in person (Room 2047, South Building).†

Friday, January 10, 2020

If You Read Nothing Else Today, Read This Report on Example of a Term Paper

If You Read Nothing Else Today, Read This Report on Example of a Term Paper Students are needed to submit Spanish custom made research papers which are free from plagiarism. Just take a couple of minutes and at least see if you're able to comprehend what I am telling you on how best to compose great college papers. Superior excellent nursing papers ought to be rich in content. Taking a look at the illustration can assist the student understand the best method to format their writing. In the event the student isn't a strong writer, they ought to locate a couple of sample introductions to read through. He should follow a proper format for it. Once he is in the right mindset, the rest of the document seems to flow smoothly. Ruthless Example of a Term Paper Strategies Exploited There are several writing companies offering help in writing Spanish customized research papers but not all them offer high excellent help. A great deal of prior Term Paper is needed by the student to compose the Term Paper properly. Students should make sure that the quality of Spanish customized research papers offered to them is well worth the sum of charged. Writing nursing papers usually takes a lot of research work and abilities in writing. Writing excellent term papers will definitely help you remain in college. You've got to compose several academic papers over the span of a year. You find the best of the best original nursing papers just made for you, at inexpensive costs. Biology paper ought to be presented in good English just like in the rest of the disciplines. Get to learn your essay and term paper subject and precisely what you would like to do with it. Last section of the expression paper needs to be conclusion. The very first section of the expression paper is introduction. Using Example of a Term Paper Students shouldn't turn in an essay they found on a totally free site. They have been known of going for essay help simply because they are unable to write quality term papers when they are assigned by their tutors. They can look through the first few papers they find. In order to get a better learning experience, the student should discover a paper on a similar topic. The 30-Second Trick for Example of a Term Paper Research paper is a sort of essay that is written in your style. Although writing a critique term paper may give you a tough time as it isn't the presentation of private expression but needs a comprehensive research of th e topic you've picked. Sample term papers ought to be strictly weighed side by side with the matter of plagiarism. Rather than risking expulsion or plagiarism charges, students need to hire professional writer to finish their paper. Moreover, you should have clear understanding on this issue you've chosen to write. For some of them you will require help, while others you are able to write by yourself. Firstly, it's crucial that you select a topic that's within your tackle zone. Some researches discuss an overall topic while some are handling something specific. Example of a Term Paper Reading the paper finally will let you spot for awkwardness in the circulation of the post and correcting where necessary. Bear in mind that writing and introduction for a paper isn't only essential, but it is going to also enable you to provide the reader the type of information that they require in order to acquire the finest possible outcomes. Finding sources of materials to compose the exp ression paper will involve distinctive practices and will be dependent on the essence of paper you're examining. The overall description of the topic in the expression paper introduction example is among the sections of the document. Ruthless Example of a Term Paper Strategies Exploited The very first purpose of every introduction is going to be to herald to the readers that something serious which must be taken care of properly in the body of the expression paper. The introduction section has to be written in an appealing style in order to immediately grab the eye of the reader. The principal parts should incorporate an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. Though the introduction is the start of the paper, students do not need to get started writing at the start. The period paper writing needs to be carried out with a detailed procedure and before hand work about this issue. The results and discussion part of your research paper should incorporate the next. The paper is written around the outline in the very first draft indicating in the very first part, the objective of the paper. The very first step in writing term papers is the choice of the subject. The 5-Minute Rule for Example of a Term Paper The success of the project is dependent on each member of the group. Introduction is an indispensable portion of the work, and you've got to understand what it should look like. Research proposal example locate a research proposal example to address your academic issue.